Circulating and Functional Biomarkers
Circulating biomarkers provide a window into specific metabolic processes. These biomarkers can serve as a measure of normal or disease-related physiological activity. In drug development studies, circulating biomarkers are frequently used to assess target engagement or disease-modifying activity in functional domains.
Circulating Biomarkers by Functional Domain:
Biomarkers are used to assess pathway-specific metabolites, such as those that represent disease activity. For example, lipidomic markers can indicate stages of NAFLD or NASH.
Biomarkers, such as TGF-β1, CRP and others, are used to assess inflammatory activity levels, which may indicate disease activity or risk of progression.
Biomarkers are used to capture tissue-specific markers of fibrogenesis and fibrolysis. Some examples are the ELF panel, FIB-4, and various collagen precursors, such as PRO-C3.
Genomic biomarkers, such as PNPLA3 and TM6SF2, are increasingly used to enrich clinical study populations for genotypes associated with certain disease phenotypes.